Sunday, November 18, 2007

Citizendium Grows

Citizendium, the online wiki encyclopedia guided, monitored, and much written by credentialed knowledge professionals as editors, keeps growing. It now has over 3800 articles, with many 'subpages'. Check it out here.

Biologists might find interesting the many articles guided by the Biology workgroup. See for example

Biology and Biology/Draft

Life and Life/Draft

The '/Draft' articles are working copies destined to update the main article.

Then go to the list of all biology articles, here.

As a wiki, Citizendium welcomes contributions (new articles, edits of existing articles) from the general public and knowledge professionals, all under gentle guidance by Citizendium's editors.


Monkeys Learn Their Numbers

Diester I,Nieder A (2007) Semantic Associations between Signs and Numerical Categories in the Prefrontal Cortex. PLoS Biol 5(11): e294 doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0050294

From the Abstract:

  • The utilization of symbols such as words and numbers as mental tools endows humans with unrivalled cognitive flexibility.
  • In the number domain, a fundamental first step for the acquisition of numerical symbols is the semantic association of signs with cardinalities.
  • We explored the primitives of such a semantic mapping process by recording single-cell activity in the monkey prefrontal and parietal cortices, brain structures critically involved in numerical cognition.
  • Monkeys were trained to associate visual shapes with varying numbers of items in a matching task.
  • After this long-term learning process, we found that the responses of many prefrontal neurons to the visual shapes reflected the associated numerical value in a behaviorally relevant way.
  • In contrast, such association neurons were rarely found in the parietal lobe.
  • These findings suggest a cardinal [probably no pun intended] role of the prefrontal cortex in establishing semantic associations between signs and abstract categories, a cognitive precursor that may ultimately give rise to symbolic thinking in linguistic humans.

Author Summary:

We use symbols, such as numbers, as mental tools for abstract and precise representations. Humans share with animals a language-independent system for representing numerical quantity, but number symbols are learned during childhood. A first step in the acquisition of number symbols constitutes an association of signs with specific numerical values of sets. To investigate the single-neuron mechanisms of semantic association, we simulated such a mapping process in rhesus monkeys by training them to associate the visual shapes of Arabic numerals with the numerosity of multiple-dot displays. We found that many individual neurons in the prefrontal cortex, but only a few in the posterior parietal cortex, responded in a tuned fashion to the same numerical values of dot sets and associated shapes. We called these neurons association neurons since they establish an associational link between shapes and numerical categories. The distribution of these association neurons across prefrontal and parietal areas resembles activation patterns in children and suggests a precursor of our symbol system in monkeys.

Copyright: © 2007 Diester and Nieder. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Monday, July 2, 2007

Citizendium Seeking Expert Contributors to Science Articles

From Citizendium's Main Page:

"The Citizendium (sit-ih-ZEN-dee-um), a "citizens' compendium of everything," is an experimental new wiki project. The project, started by a co-founder of Wikipedia, aims to improve on that model by adding "gentle expert oversight" and requiring contributors to use their real names."

I like Citizendium because of the expert-guidance of collaboratively written science articles -- the feeling of confidence that gives in reading an article. I like the opportunity to edit articles in progress when I have something to contribute. I like the opportunity to start new articles from scratch and develop them offline before posting and giving other experts the opportunity to comment and edit. I like the fact that 'approved' articles have an accompanying 'draft' version to continue working on, eventually to replace the earlier 'approved' version -- science does not stand still.

"Share your knowledge. It's a way to achieve immortality." --Attributed to Dalai Lama